Storms' model

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Storms’ model is a two-dimensional map of erotic orientation showing four sexual orientation categories: homosexual, bisexual, asexual, and heterosexual. This model was proposed in 1979 by Michael Storms to address several inadequacies with the one-dimensional Kinsey scale. First, the Kinsey scale had no way to distinguish between strong attraction to males and females and little to no attraction to either. Associated with this, Kinsey had no way of dealing with asexuals and simply labeled them X, a point completely off of the scale. By placing hetero- and homo-eroticism on two perpendicular axes, Storms' model can both account for asexuality, which fits poorly into the bipolar Kinsey scale, and more accurately describe bisexuality.[1]

In addition to this, the Storms model makes an interesting prediction regarding asexuals (that Storms did not mention): Asexuals should exist along a continuum with non-asexuals rather than being an inexplicable anomaly that must be placed off the scale.

Homosexual Bisexual
Asexual Heterosexual
low high
hetero-eroticism →


By placing hetero- and homoeroticism on the axes, Storms' model is essentially limited to discussing the attraction of binary gender people to other binary gender people; the model does not account for the existence of non-binary people effectively, and is difficult for many non-binary people to use.

Also, The two-dimensional model only measures for the binary concepts: "asexuality/no romance" -vs- "sexuality/romance". I.e., Storms' model does not account for hetero/bi/homo-romantic asexuals. The addition of a third-dimensional 'z' axis measuring a libido scale, independent of the orientation axis would take this factor into account.

See also:


  1. Storms, Michael D. (1980). "Theories of Sexual Orientation". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38: 783-792.